According to UBS data, anyone with a viable solid-state battery that can surpass lithium-ion technology may have the upper hand in the market for all electric vehicle batteries worth about $84 billion by 2025, and its current value is about 230. One hundred million U.S. dollars.
On January 8th, according to foreign media reports, in order to provide a cheaper, safer and fully charged electric car that can travel 800 kilometers, the automotive industry needs to make breakthroughs in battery technology. However, in order to achieve such a breakthrough, it is often easier said than done.
Scientists in China, Japan, and the United States are struggling to find ways to significantly increase the battery's ability to store batteries, and to make electric vehicles the same range as full-filled oil, which requires the help of solid-state battery technology. This technique requires a major overhaul of the internal structure of the battery, using solid materials instead of flammable liquids for charging and discharging purposes.
This technology is expected to make a breakthrough in the case of major improvements in existing lithium-ion battery packs. Many automakers say lithium-ion batteries are reaching their storage limits and may never have enough power for remote models.
If successful, solid-state battery technology can help accelerate the demise of internal combustion engines, and it is possible to reduce the charging time of electric vehicles from a few hours to about 10 minutes. The super-charged pile network built by Tesla now offers faster charging, but it still takes about 30 minutes to get 80% of the depleted car.
Ted Miller, senior manager of energy storage strategy and research at Ford Motor Company in Detroit, said: "Without solid-state battery technology, we can't find other ways to achieve this. I can't predict now. Who will commercialize it.” Ford has studied various technologies to provide a more powerful electric car battery.
At present, the best prototypes using solid-state batteries are only enough to drive a single-passenger car through the Toyota car park near Mount Fuji in Japan. Automakers such as Daimler AG and Fisker, China's lithium industry giants, TotalSA, and MIT and Stanford's subsidiaries are working hard to complete this. task.
Fiske may first test its battery in this year, while Toyota and Daimler's test time limit is extended to 2020.
This bet is very big. The adoption of electric vehicles is expected to drive the rapid growth of lithium-ion batteries, which are the main substitutes for internal combustion engines. The latest report from Bloomberg NEF found that lithium-ion batteries used in electric buses and passenger cars in 2017 reached 44 GWh. It is expected that by 2030, this demand will soar to more than 1,500 GWh per year.
According to data from UBS GroupAG, anyone with a viable solid-state battery that can surpass lithium-ion technology may gain the upper hand in all of the electric vehicle battery market worth about $84 billion by 2025, and its current value. It is about $23 billion.
Solid-state battery successfully required support
Lithium-ion battery technology is a standard technology used in mobile phones and personal electronics for decades. It is entering the field of electric vehicles and grid energy storage. It uses a liquid electrolyte to shuttle ions between the anode and the cathode to charge or discharge the battery. Solid batteries, as the name implies, replace liquids with solid materials such as ceramics, glass or polymers.
This should reduce the risk of battery fire and make the battery thinner and smaller so that it can be placed under the car seat. Researchers also want to match solid electrolytes with lithium metal anodes to increase energy density and allow electric vehicles to travel longer distances without having to stop charging. This may help to eliminate consumer concerns about the exhaustion of power in the middle of the road, thereby stimulating sales.
To do this, you need to solve a series of problems. The current battery life of the prototype is too short for the car, and the battery is poorly conductive and cost-effective when charging or discharging, and the material sometimes expands and contracts rapidly.
Yasuo I Shihero, managing director of Japan's Lithium-Ion Battery Technology and Evaluation Center (LIBTEC), said that when scientists solve one of these problems, they often exacerbate another problem. A coalition of 25 companies, including Toyota, Panasonic and Nissan, received funding from the government for about $90 million to accelerate research and development.
Henrik Fisker, chairman and CEO of Fisker, said: "In all the participants, it seems that everyone has solved one or two or three of the five most important things, But no one really solves all the problems."
The Qingdao New Energy Research Institute of China will conduct a solid-state battery vehicle test within two years and consider commercializing it in 2025. China's largest battery manufacturer, Contemporary Amperex Technologies, Inc., incorporates solid-state battery technology into its advanced battery research.
South Korea's Samsung SDI, SK Innovations and Hyundai Motor Co. said they are also studying the technology. Dyson, a UK-based home appliance manufacturer, is also working on the technology, whose current target is electric vehicles.
Andreas Hinnetnach, head of battery research at Daimler in Stuttgart, Germany, said: "For passenger cars, we should see prototypes in the early 1920s." Months, the automaker behind the brand, including Mercedes-Benz, agreed to order $23 billion in contemporary lithium-ion batteries by 2030.
Volkswagen AG plans to begin trial production with its partner Quantumscape in 2022. These schedules may prove to be optimistic.
Sam Jaffe, managing director of Boulder Energy Research Advisors, an industry consultant, said: "In fact, this is a cruel battlefield. Everyone is working hard to make these batteries work, but No one is close to this goal yet."
BNEF's London-based analyst James Frith said that by the end of the 1920s, solid-state batteries with all the promised advantages could be marketed. Even then, their prices can still be very high.
Tesla said the company often talks to developers and reviews battery prototypes, but has yet to see any better battery technology than existing lithium-ion batteries. Tesla ModelS can drive 539 kilometers when fully charged. Tesla Chief Technology Officer JBStraubel once said: "We have done our best, we listen, we want to find it, but we have not succeeded."
Tesla's supplier Matsushita said that the company is still continuing to study solid-state battery technology, but "there are still many obstacles to commercialization."
Toyota's breakthrough potential
According to competitors, scholars and patent data, the biggest hope for achieving breakthroughs in solid-state battery technology lies in Toyota.
According to BloombergLaw, the largest automaker in Asia has at least 233 patents or applications related to solid-state battery technology, almost three times its nearest competitor. Toyota's annual report released in October 2018 shows that the company will invest 1.5 trillion yen ($13.9 billion) in the battery business and plans to commercialize solid-state battery technology in the early 1920s.
In the past ten years, Toyota has deployed up to 200 employees, mainly in the East Bridge-Fuji Research Center near Mount Fuji. The company has made great strides in using solid-state batteries to power digital clocks, two-wheeled scooters, and conveyor belts, and then tested the technology on a modified version of its single-seat low-speed car COMS.
Shih Hsien Ho, the former Toyota manager at LIBTEC, said the car is more of an incentive for researchers than a means of transportation.
Ford's Miller said that because many existing electric vehicle battery manufacturers focus on increasing production and reducing costs, Toyota's main challenger may be a group of US start-ups. Considering this possibility, Volkswagen spent $100 million last year to acquire it.
Ford's Miller said that because many existing electric vehicle battery manufacturers focus on increasing production and reducing costs, Toyota's main challenger may be a group of US start-ups. Taking into account this possibility, Volkswagen spent $100 million last year to increase its stake in Quantumscape. Quantumscape was founded by former Stanford University researchers and is headquartered in San Jose, California.
IonicMaterial, based in Woburn, Mass., said Sun Microsystems co-founder Bill Joy and venture capital funds consisting of automakers Renault SA, Nissan and Mitsubishi. Its supporters.
At a forum in Osaka, Japan, in October 2018, Hu Qichao, CEO of SolidEnergy Systems, a divested subsidiary of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said it expects to begin solid-state battery testing of electric vehicles after 2021.
SolidPower, a battery company based in Louisville, Colo., has been developing a partnership with BMW AG since December 2017. Its chief executive, Doug Campbell, said he believes solid-state battery technology will be commercially viable in the automotive sector, but may not have to wait five to ten years.
Campbell said: "I will not say that we have no challenges ahead. But I am confident that these challenges can be overcome without miracles."